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Visual Integration and Analysis of
Multidisciplinary 4D Data

Graham Brew and Art Paradis, Dynamic Graphics Inc.

Part 1 | Introduction

Time-lapse seismic monitoring is producing huge data volumes at an increasing rate: Permanent Reservoir Monitoring is exaggerating this stream of unique and valuable information. Any potential 4D seismic signal is acknowledged to be of greatest use when integrated into the remainder of the reservoir management information for unified analysis (Calvert, 2005). True understanding—and hence better decision-making based on the 4D seismic response—can only come with the full and complete integration of these temporal data with all the other dynamic data from the field. We suggest a method for this temporal data fusion.

CoViz 4D Model

Assuming that a detectable 4D seismic result has been observed, we concentrate on the visualization and analysis of that response with particular emphasis on the integration with reservoir simulation data and other dynamic field observations. As discussed by Waggoner (2001), four specific areas in which time-lapse seismic results can be used include:

  • Visual Interpretation
  • Model Screening
  • Quantitative Interpretation
  • Seismic History Matching

In the following discussion we examine methods for the temporal data fusion from some of these interpretive areas.

Visual Integration and Analysis of
Multidisciplinary 4D Data

Graham Brew and Art Paradis, Dynamic Graphics Inc.

Part 2 | Visual ⁄ Qualitative Temporal Integration

Whilst visualization solutions for subsurface 3D data are numerous, challenges are met when integrating diverse data with a strong temporal⁄dynamic component. A flexible solution for this 4D visualization is especially required for quantitative comparisons, for example, examining a 4D seismic response with production history or reservoir simulation prediction. In fact, dynamic data are often the rule, rather than the exception, in hydrocarbon development situations. Temporal data could include:

  • 4D seismic data & attributes
  • Reservoir simulations
  • Streamline Data
  • Production Data
  • Well⁄completion status over time
  • Multiple well log runs
  • Microseismic data
  • Surface ⁄ subsurface infrastructure

As elaborated by van Gestel et al. (2008), when all these data, and more, are fully integrated together in a dynamic environment accessible to the entire multi-disciplinary asset team then decision-making can be vastly accelerated and improved.

Moreover, there are abundant additional opportunities for data QC in a 4D visualization space—for instance comparing the reservoir simulation realization of completion status with that recorded in the geologic database.

The image below, as well as that above-right, show an integrated viewing environment with temporal well data (status and completions changing with time) integrated with dynamic reservoir simulation and 4D seismic data. The production and cell history plots shown above are also dynamically linked into this same visual environment.

Visual Integration and Analysis of
Multidisciplinary 4D Data

Graham Brew and Art Paradis, Dynamic Graphics Inc.

Part 3 | Model Screening ⁄ Multiple Realizations

Despite various tools at our disposal for the rapid visual integration of diverse reservoir management data, obstacles remain when spatiotemporal data density is high. In particular the typical 2D workstation screen is limited to essentially displaying, at one time, only one of potentially any number of spatially and temporally overlapping data volumes.

Moreover, the problem is compounded by the ″fifth dimension″ of analysis: model uncertainty. Multiple 4D models need to be rapidly screened and assessed—often in a visual fashion—to grade their suitability or need for adjustment.

Proposed solutions to the ″visual data density″ challenge include, of course, temporal animation on the workstation or other display device played and captured at a variety of speed scaled to real calendar time.

Other possible solutions include the virtual duplication of the workspace but in a coordinated and ″linked″ fashion that is intuitive, even transparent, to the end-user.

Shown below are two possible solutions. On the left is a series of vertical stacked model spaces where a duplicated vertical dimension allows for easier data comparison, including data of dissimilar vertical units (c.f. time & depth). On the right is an example of a visualization environment using multiple locked viewing windows allowing simultaneous manipulation and comparison of a range of different properties or time steps from a single simulation run. In a similar manner geologic uncertainty, such a fault transmissibility, can be rapidly reviewed across multiple realizations with consequent changes in reservoir initial conditions feed back to the simulator.

Visual Integration and Analysis of
Multidisciplinary 4D Data

Graham Brew and Art Paradis, Dynamic Graphics Inc.

Part 4a | Quantitative Interpretation

Whereas some observed 4D seismic responses are robust enough only for qualitative interpretation (of the types discussed above), in many instances a quantitative Seismic History Match can be attempted&thus correlating in a statistical sense the observed changes from the 4D seismic data with the predicted changes in the reservoir simulation model. To be fully useful and wholly integrated into the quantitative interpretive workflow, some key functionalities should be available in this workflow. Moreover, these functions should ideally be available seamlessly within an environment providing access all relevant & supporting data.

Proposed steps in a fully-integrated quantitative analysis workflow could include the following:

Time-step arithmetic operations (rapid calculations of
differences over time)

Calculated differences between an assumed “base” condition and a later “monitor” date are fundamental to the 4D analysis. At a minimum this should include the ability to compute differences between any two time points in a simulation run, any two vintages of a 4D seismic campaign, and likewise differences between seismic attributes from different dates. Also desirable would be full arithmetic control of the input products, including temporal manipulations of secondary dynamic data such as production and microseismic data.

Interactive tools for property averages and attribute extractions in
seismic space and cellular space

One often essential step in the quantitative workflow is the ability to easily extract⁄compute averages and sums across a vertical interval of interest—usually the reservoir itself. This function needs to be available for both the seismic data (in effect allowing for the extraction of seismic attributes from a volume of data) and in cellular space so a comparable “interval” average (or sum) can be extracted from the simulation results or any particular property or delta (difference).

In the image above we see comparable seismic and cellular extractions and averages computed across a turbidite channel offshore Northwest Europe.

Back-interpolations of property values between spatially and
temporally overlapping data

Perhaps the most critical step in the quantitative analysis is the numerical sampling of one property attribute alongside a second spatially overlapping but inherently dissimilar attribute. This sampling, otherwise called back-interpolation, can have manifestations in both the spatial and temporal domain in a wide variety of data sets. Typical examples could include the back-interpolation of seismic impedance data into a well log; reservoir simulation data into a well log; seismic attributes into a interval averaged simulation extraction; or, as shown in the image at right, seismic attribute volumes into the reservoir simulation grid geometry. Each of these cases can potentially have a dynamic component leading, for instance, to back-interpolation of a 4D seismic volume into the time & space structure of a reservoir simulation grid for further numerical comparison.

In the image above a seismic discontinuity attribute (″coherency cube″) from around a North Sea Salt dome (in color) is displayed. The discontinuity attribute has been back-interpolated into the well data. This would allow, for example, the direct comparison of fault⁄fracture information from the seismic attribute with similar information recorded in image⁄well logs.

Visual Integration and Analysis of
Multidisciplinary 4D Data

Graham Brew and Art Paradis, Dynamic Graphics Inc.

Part 4b | Quantitative Interpretation

Statistical Analysis and Cross-Plotting of diverse data types with
interactive links back into the 3D viewing space

The quantitative computations and extractions culminate with the statistical comparison of properties from the different sources: in the current example this would be the cross-plotting of the interval-averaged sum of the differenced reservoir simulation attribute against the seismic attribute extraction differenced across the same, or very similar, temporal interval.

The image below shows one potential such cross-plot. In this example the data points are further colored by a third attribute and all the statistics are linked back in a spatial and temporal sense to the 3D⁄4D viewing space. This means, for example, that when the 4D viewing space is animated in calendar time, the cross-plot changes to reflect the new seismic and simulation time-points. Moreover, when points or regions are selected in the cross-plot, those space points⁄regions are highlighted in the 4D viewing space, and vice versa.

Linear regression can be used to further elaborate on the match, or lack thereof, between the datasets. Points and areas can be selected based on the correspondence to a regression line.

Multiple Output options to capture and export the
results of the quantitative analysis

The quantitative analysis and interactive cross-plotting will likely lead to new insights regarding the seismic history match and result in changes and adjustments to be communicated back to the simulator or other elements within the process. The quantitative workflow should include adequate outputs and product generation in mutually acceptable formats to make this feedback as rapid and easy as possible.

References

Calvert, R. [2005] Insights and Methods for 4D Reservoir Monitoring and Characterization, SEG ⁄ EAGE Distinguished Instructor Short Course #8.
Waggoner, J. [2001] Integrating Time-Lapse 3D (4D) seismic data with reservoir simulators, EAGE 63rd Conference & Technical Exhibition— Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 11–15 June 2001.
van Gestel, J.P., Kommedal, J.H., Barkved, O.I., Mundal, I., Bakke, R. and Best, K.D. [2008] Continuous seismic surveillance of Valhall Field, The Leading Edge, 27, 1616–1621.

Slideshow

  • This image shows an integrated viewing environment with temporal well data (status and completions changing with time) integrated with dynamic reservoir simulation and 4D seismic data.
    The image above shows an integrated viewing environment with temporal well data (status and completions changing with time) integrated with dynamic reservoir simulation and 4D seismic data.
  • The powerful CoViz 4D visualization engine allows integration of hydraulic fracturing data with subsurface geological, petrophysical, and additional reservoir data to present the microseismic data in their true geologic context.
    Detailed 4D examination of the micro-seismicity involved within a shale formation during several hydraulic fracturing stages.
  • CoViz 4D makes it possible for multi-disciplinary users to simultaneously view and interrogate datasets from throughout the asset development team—regardless of the original data source.
    Integration of multi-disciplinary data, including reservoir simulation, 4D seismic, seismic attribute extractions, structure model, and production data.
  • Working in the CoViz Integrated Well Designer, users can identify and manage problem areas faster, shortening the cycle between geosciences and drilling, thereby maximizing returns on drilling investments.
    Driven by the strength of the WellArchitect planning engine, the CoViz Integrated Well Designer combines powerful well planning software with advanced 3D visualization capabilities—a major step forward for the oil & gas drilling industry.
  • The powerful CoViz 4D visualization engine yields fast and easy manipulation and interrogation of massive 3D datasets. In particular, the CoViz 4D system has been optimized for the rapid loading and display of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data—datasets that can often consist of over a billion individual point samples
    Point Loma, California—LiDAR merged with aerial photo. LiDAR data generated for the Scripps Institution of Oceanography by the Center for Space Research, the University of Texas at Austin (CSR), with support provided by the Bureau of Economic Geology, the University of Texas at Austin (BEG), and the Government Flight Services of the Texas Department of Transportation. Aerial photo from the Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of eXpertise, 2008.
  • Recently released versions of CoViz 4D include significant new features for the rapid, integrated, quantitative analysis and comparison of diverse 3D and 4D data sets. In particular this includes the quantitative analysis of 4D seismic data and attributes within a multidisciplinary data fusion environment.
    In the image above a seismic discontinuity attribute (″coherency cube″) from around a North Sea Salt dome (in color) is displayed. The discontinuity attribute has been back-interpolated into the well data. This would allow, for example, the direct comparison of fault⁄fracture information from the seismic attribute with similar information recorded in image⁄well logs.
  • Integrated display of seismic amplitude imported as an attribute into a cellular grid and wellpath data.
    Integrated display of seismic amplitude imported as an attribute into a cellular grid and wellpath data.
  • Quantitative visualization of 3D data from the North Sea showing seismic volume, wells, and cellular extraction.
    Quantitative visualization of 3D data from the North Sea showing seismic volume, wells, and cellular extraction.
  • The real value of CoViz 4D is in providing the ideal 2D/3D/4D environment for true data integration and analysis. Integration of LiDAR datasets with other surface and subsurface information enables fuller examination and understanding of complex systems in their true environmental context.
    In this LiDAR dataset of nearly one billion points the Canadian city of Ottawa is presented in impressive detail, but can easily be manipulated and interrogated on even a laptop computer using CoViz 4D software.
  • A 3D representation of earthquake foci for the Sendai, Japan earthquake. The red sphere indicates the main earthquake of magnitude 8.9. The yellow concentric circles show the 20, 30 and 80 kilometer exclusion zones around the Fukushima Nuclear Facility.
    A 3D representation of earthquake foci for the Sendai, Japan earthquake. Red sphere indicates the main earthquake of magnitude 8.9. Yellow concentric circles show the 20, 20 and 80 KM exclusion zones around the Fukushima Nuclear Facility.
  • Hurricane Ike?s path and forecast uncertainty cones before entering the Gulf of Mexico. Colored spheres indicate wind speed in mph. Dark blue and magenta towers represent wind gusts and wave height, respectively.
    Hurricane Ike′s path and forecast uncertainty cones before entering the Gulf of Mexico. Colored spheres indicate wind speed in mph. Dark blue and magenta towers represent wind gusts and wave height, respectively.
  • The CoViz Integrated Well Designer, an optional module for use with CoViz 4D, offers quick, robust, easy-to-use well planning for non-expert well planners within the context of their geologic, geophysical, and reservoir data
    The CoViz Integrated Well Designer, an optional module for use with CoViz 4D, offers quick, robust, easy-to-use well planning for non-expert well planners within the context of their geologic, geophysical, and reservoir data. Working in the CoViz Integrated Well Designer, users can identify and manage problem areas faster, shortening the cycle between geosciences and drilling, thereby maximizing returns on drilling investments.
 

Latest News

CoViz 4D 9.0

CoViz 4D version 9.0 Dynamic Graphics, Inc. is delighted to announce the release of CoViz 4D version 9.0. With this release comes significant new features for quantitative visualization and analysis for CoViz 4D clients. Special attention has been given to reservoir engineering features, with new easier plotting of production data, faster cellular and streamline rendering, and a new tetrahedral object class. Come and see DGI at a forthcoming tradeshow, or contract us directly for a customized demonstration on your data.

Ikon Science to combine CoViz Lite visualization system with RokDoc software

Ikon Science announced today an agreement for the commercial licensing of CoViz® Lite as part of its RokDoc software packages to create a new RokDoc state-of-the-art visualization system.

CoViz 4D Improves Quantitative Visualization Adding Time-based Analysis

3D Visualization World magazine recently interviewed Graham Brew, Project Manager for the CoViz 4D product to learn more about Dynamic Graphics, Inc. and CoViz 4D.

CoViz Integrated Well Designer for CoViz 4D

Preview of New CoViz 4D Well Planning Tool, the CoViz Integrated Well Designer, at SPE Conference.

Articles and Papers

Working With the 4th Dimension

Graham Brew, Dynamic Graphics, Inc., USA, and Jane Wheelwright, Dynamic Graphics, Ltd, UK, discuss the integration of 4D seismic data into the reservoir management workflow.

Visual Integration and Analysis of Multidisciplinary 4D Data

Originally presented at EAGE PRM Workshop, Trondheim, Norway.

Visualizing the Reservoir

A solution that offers a dynamic, temporal visualization environment for data fusion and integrated reservoir surveillance.

Visualizing Everything at Once

Dynamic Graphics has developed a tool which can visualize multiple datasets from an oil field simultaneously in 3D and 4D—from an overall view of the basin to a view of the individual wells and reservoirs—and you can see how it changed over time as well.

downloads

CoViz 4D Product Sheet » | CoViz Integrated Well Designer » | Microseismic Visualization » | LiDAR Visualization » | Adobe Acrobat Reader » |

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