The characterization of subsurface conditions is vital when it comes to oil field production optimization. Production from a reservoir changes the initial relative volumes and saturations of oil, gas, and water contained within that reservoir. To make the best decisions during operations, analysts need clear visuals that can highlight these subsurface changes and superb analytic software that tracks the variations. The ability to visualize data in 4D plays a crucial role, as it allows analysts to understand how subsurface conditions within a reservoir have changed over time.
Successful Visualization of Fluid Migration Patterns
The seismic response of a reservoir is affected by both the rock density and the density of the fluids contained within the pore spaces. As fluids are produced, the average density and therefore seismic velocity of the reservoir interval changes. These changes can result in discernible variation in seismic reflectivity and amplitude of the reservoir interval.
The visualization and analysis of 4D seismic data can provide a direct view of fluid migration within a reservoir. Consider a water drive, for instance. With the proper software, analysts can track how the extraction of oil or gas boosts the average reservoir density, including the seismic velocity of the reservoir interval, and track the seismic amplitude to determine water penetration within the reservoir. Overall, 4D seismic data can help users avoid any premature water breaches that could stall operations.
The Role of Data Integration in Reservoir Characterization
Four-dimensional seismic data is more useful when integrated with supporting data streams that further enlighten analysts on reservoir conditions, enhancing the decision-making process. All too often, the incorporation of different datasets into flow models is a difficult task. Often, analysts must contend with unsupported data formats that are not easily assimilated into a single viewing hub, complicating the analytical process as users struggle to piece together the datasets.
The multidisciplinary function of CoViz 4D—an integrated software solution—incorporates disparate data streams into a prime viewing interface, condensing the data in a digestible viewing form for each teammate to understand easily, regardless of their field of expertise. CoViz 4D allows engineering departments to assess subsurface seismic data that was previously analyzed by geoscience departments. It brings different teams together so each member can better understand subsurface conditions—forming creative solutions to some of the toughest challenges in oil field production optimization.
Cross-Plotting Datasets for Further Analysis
Regardless of the datasets, 4D functionality is one of the most important features when analyzing subsurface profiles. The 4D seismic acquisition scheme captures the variations in seismic attributes and can be matched with reservoir models and fluid production within various wells. With the integrated data, users can get a calibration of fluid/gas saturations relative to seismic attributes.
With 4D analysis, analysts will also have the ability to:
- calculate the property deltas between any two time-steps of a simulation run
- at each time-step, automatically see the appropriate data for that time-step
- compute differences between seismic attributes over time
The combination of cross-plotting and quantitative analysis fosters a detailed understanding of subsurface conditions, allowing for adjustments to simulations for improved accuracy. The 4D seismic data buffers predictions and simulation models via seismic history matches, enhancing flow models and reducing uncertainty through the comparison of pressure and fluid variations stemming from time-lapse seismic data. The enhanced features foster a wider understanding that leads to better reservoir management decisions.
Oil Field Production Optimization with CoViz 4D
CoViz 4D successfully depicts reservoir conditions in great detail. The crisp visuals and added features allow analysts to see how a reservoir changes during production. Users can see fluid migration patterns in the form of water, oil, or natural gas—in addition to rock and fluid densities. Additionally, CoViz 4D can provide saturation models that are updated according to reservoir simulation models and seismic responses.
Oil field production optimization entails quantitative visualization options that cross-correlate disparate datasets. The understanding of fluid migration patterns will help operators make the appropriate decisions that maximize hydrocarbon extraction campaigns.