Reservoir simulation grid shown with the structural model, seismic and lathe plots of well logs. Data used with permission of owner.
Predicting reservoir behavior is crucial for avoiding many challenges in the development of a hydrocarbon asset. A reservoir simulation grid is one approach that geoscientists and reservoir engineers take to analyze reservoir models which provide a better understanding of subsurface conditions. Paired with 4D seismic, reservoir simulation grids can yield a standard way of locating subsurface anomalies and generating a 4D understanding of reservoir behavior to make more informed decisions for efficient asset production. With software that allows for integrated quantitative visualization, users can compare data and models and visually analyze the area of interest to make accurate predictions, reduce uncertainty, and increase cost-effectiveness.
Enhancing Reservoir Simulation Grids Through Integration and Comparison
A reservoir simulation model can be developed to replicate actual reservoir characteristics, thus making it easy to identify fluid flow patterns through history matching, determine uncertainties, and make predictions of reservoir behavior. Gridding in the reservoir simulation allows engineers to make accurate geological and petrophysical predictions through proper representation of rock properties including faults and strata, porosity and permeability, pressure, and saturation.
The reservoir simulation grid stores geological properties at grid point and models on a block-by-block basis enabling detailed interpretation. Integration of 4D seismic enhances this prediction of reservoir behavior by adding an increased level of detail—specifically temporal detail—to the picture. The ability to visualize data at its correct geospatial location at specific points in time enables observation of variations, enhancing 4D understanding of the reservoir.
The ability to run the simulation multiple times facilitates observation of variation by comparing values in successive reservoir simulation grids. With this, geologists, geophysicists, and reservoir engineers can:
- Evaluate complex reservoir properties through a better understanding of subsurface properties.
- Cross-correlate and compare the 4D seismic attributes with well logs to analyze the accuracy of the model.
- Minimize uncertainty caused by ambiguous data with time-step arithmetic capabilities.
Cross plot of oil saturation and seismic amplitude early in the life of a reservoir. This shows a decent correlation between the negative amplitudes and higher oil saturation values. Data used with permission of owner.
Integrated Visualization for Understanding Reservoir Behavior
The integration of 4D seismic data with a reservoir simulation model allows for a comprehensive understanding of reservoir behavior. The observations based on data visualization and comparison allow users to easily locate variations and anomalous values, essential in identifying the current and future performance of the reservoir. The integration of projected behavior shown by reservoir simulation along with the observed variation of 4D seismic allows asset teams to:
- Help define flow regions and track fluid migration
- Identify regions that are depleted and their extent of depletion
- Determine near wellbore information
- Simulate production effects over time in the wells
- Perform history matching to improve the reservoir performance prediction
CoViz 4D: Quantitative Visualization for Successful Analysis
The integrated visualization capabilities of CoViz 4D allow users to understand reservoir performance over time for successful asset planning and development. The ability to filter and scale seismic and simulation data allows asset teams to visually compare and analyze the area of interest. CoViz 4D’s time-step capabilities facilitate the identification of anomalies and variations in the data through the construction of residual anomaly maps. With a 4D understanding of the reservoir and enhanced forecasting, geoscientists and reservoir engineers can easily evaluate their existing operational strategy and make better planning and development decisions.